Internal deformation monitoring for centrifuge slope model with embedded FBG arrays

没有可用的翻译。

Dan Zhang, Qiang Xu, Adam Bezuijen, Guang Zheng, Hongxian Wang

Landslides 2017

DOI 10.1007/s10346-016-0742-2

Abstract The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology was utilized for internal deformation monitoring in a centrifuge test of soil slope. An array of FBG sensors were encapsulated into a sensing fiber with a diameter of 0.9 mm. A pullout test was designed to investigate the frictional behavior between the sensing fiber and soil. It was concluded that, for a certain value of overburden pressure, the fiber strain is equal to the strain of soil as long as the fiber strain is less than its peak value in the pullout test. The sensing fibers were embedded directly into a slope centrifuge model to monitor the internal strain distribution and its variation. It can be found that the horizontal sensors were stretched extremely and the vertical sensors were compressed distinctly near a potential slip surface. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the soil internal deformation as well as the failure of the slope model by using FBG sensing technology. This is verified by a comparison between the results of FBGs and that of a numerical simulation. According to these preliminary results, discussions and recommendations for further research are presented.

Keywords Centrifuge model . Internal deformation . FBG array . Sensing fiber . Slope

References

Ansari F (2007) Practical implementation of optical fiber sensors in civil structural health monitoring. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 18(8):879–889

Arsenault TJ, Achuthan A, Marzoccal P, Grappasonni, Coppotelli G (2013) Development of a FBG based distributed strain sensor system for wind turbine structural health monitoring. Smart Mater Struct 22:075027

Bao XY, Chen L (2012) Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors. Sensors 12:8601–8639

Elshafie MZEB, Choy CKC, Mair RJ (2013) Centrifuge modeling of deep excavations and their interaction with adjacent buildings. Geotech Test J 36(5):1–12

Grattan KTV, Meggitt BT (2000) Optical fiber sensor technology: advanced applications— Bragg gratings and distributed sensors. Springer, US

Habel WR, Hofmann D, Döring H, Jentsch H, Senze A, Kowalle G (2014) Detection of a slipping soil area in an open coal pit by embedded fibre-optic sensing rods. Proceeding of the 5th International forum on opto-electronic sensor-based monitoring in geo-engineering, Nanjing, China, 1–7

Hauswirth D, Iten M, Richli R, Puzrin AM (2010) Fibre optic cable and micro-anchor pullout tests in sand. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics (ICPMG 2010), Zurich, Switzerland 

Hill KO, Fujii Y, Johnson DC, Kawasaki BS (1978) Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication. Appl Phys Lett 32:647–649

Hill KO, Malo B, Bilodeau F, Johnson DC, Albert J (1993) Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask. Appl Phys Lett 62(10):1035–1037

Kruse GAM, Bezuijen A (1998) The use of CT scans to evaluate soil models. Proc. Of Centrifuge 98, Balkema, pp 79–84

Ling HI, Wu MH, Leshchinsky D, Leshchinsky B (2009) Centrifuge modeling of slope instability. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 135:758–767

Lu Y, Shi B, Wei GQ, Chen SE, Zhang D (2012) Application of a distributed optical fiber sensing technique in monitoring the stress of precast piles. Smart Mater Struct 21:115011

Muir Wood D (2004) Geotechnical modelling. Spon Press, London and New York

Ng CWW, Shi JW, Hong Y (2013a) Three-dimensional centrifuge modelling of basement excavation effects on an existing tunnel in dry sand. Can Geotech J 50:874–888

Ng CWW, Boonyarak T, Mašín D (2013b) Three-dimensional centrifuge and numerical modeling of the interaction between perpendicularly crossing tunnels. Can Geotech J 50:935–946

Niewczas P, McDonald JR (2007) Advanced optical sensors for power and energy systems applications. IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine (1):18–28

Ortigao JAR, Sayao ASFJ (2004) Handbook of slope stabilisation. Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York

Rao YJ, Lobo Ribeiro AB, Jackson DA, Zhang L, Bennion I (1995) Combined spatial- and time-division-multiplexing scheme for fibre grating sensors with drift-compensated phase-sensitive detection. Opt Lett 20:2149

Sun YJ, Zhang D, Shi B, Tong HJ, Wei GQ, Wang X (2014) Distributed acquisition, characterization and process analysis of multi-field information in slopes. Eng Geol 182:49–62

Shi B, Zhang D, Zhu HH, Liu C (2011) Application of distributed optical fiber strain measurement into geotechnical engineering monitoring. In: Chang FK (ed) Proceedings of the 8th international workshop on structural health monitoring, vol 2. Stanford University, USA, p. 2327

Sommers AN, Viswanadham BVS (2009) Centrifuge model tests on the behavior of strip footing on geotextile-reinforced slopes. Geotext Geomembr 27:497–505

Take WA, Bolton MD, Wong PCP, Yeung FJ (2004) Evaluation of landslide triggering mechanisms in model fill slopes. Landslides 1(3):173–184

Wang BJ, Li K, Shi B, Wei GQ (2009) Test on application of distributed fiber optic sensing technique into soil slope monitoring. Landslides 6(1):61–68

White DJ, Bolton MD (2002) Soil deformation around a displacement pile in sand. Physical modelling in geotechnics: ICPMG’02, Newfoundland, pp 649–654

Yin YP, Wang HD, Gao YL, Li X (2010) Real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides at relocated Wushan town, the three gorges reservoir, China. Landslides 7(3):339–349

Zornberg JG, Mitchell JK, Sitar N (1997) Testing of reinforced slopes in a geotechnical centrifuge, geotechnical testing journal. ASTM 20(4):470–480