A new flexible FBG sensing beam for measuring dynamic lateral displacements of soil in a shaking table test

Dong-Sheng Xu a, Jian-Hua Yin a, Zhen-Zhong Cao b, Yun-Long Wang b, Hong-Hu Zhu c,
Hua-Fu Pei a
a Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
b Institution of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration, Harbin, China
c School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Source: Measurement Available online 21 June 2012

Fulltext link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2012.06.007

Abstract
In this paper, the design, validation, and application of a new flexible fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing beam are presented for effectively measuring dynamic lateral displacements inside soil mass in a shaking table test. The special flexible FBG sensing beam has been fabricated by employing a series of FBG sensors along with design of temperature compensation. Based on this design, equations of converting strains to lateral displacements are derived by using both differential and integral methods. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the FBG sensing beam has been verified in a shaking table test with non-contact laser displacement sensors (LDSs). The dynamic lateral displacements at different depths of the soil mass in the shaking table box throughout time history are calculated by differential and integral methods and compared with the results of LDSs. The comparison validates the measurement accuracy of the FBG sensing beam. Additionally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis result demonstrates that frequency measured by the sensing beam fits well with the results of traditional accelerometers and LDSs. Therefore, it can be concluded that the flexible FBG sensing beam is compatible with the stiffness of the soil and is capable of measuring dynamic lateral displacements with good accuracy in a shaking table test.

Keywords
Fiber optic sensor; Fiber Bragg grating (FBG); Dynamic lateral displacement; Shaking table test

1. Introduction

2. Principle and design of the FBG sensing beam

3. Verification of the shaking table test

4. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References
[1] A.M. Wahbeh, J.P. Caffrey, S.F. Masri. A vision-based approach for the direct measurement of displacements in vibrating systems. Smart Mater. Struct., 12 (2003), pp. 785–794.

[2] J.W. Park, J.J. Lee, H.J. Jung, H. Myung. Vision-based displacement measurement method for high-rise building structures using partitioning approach. NDT&E Int., 43 (2010), pp. 642–647.

[3] P. Olaszek. Investigation of the dynamic characteristic of bridge structures using a computer vision method. Measurement, 25 (1999), pp. 227–236

[4] B. Glisic, D. Inaudi, P. Kroenberg, S. Lloret, S. Vurpillot, Special sensors for deformation measurements of different construction materials and structures, in: SPIE 6th International Symposium Smart Structures and Materials, Newport Beach, USA, vol. 03, 1999, pp. 1–5.

[5] H.H. Zhu, J.H. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Jin, J.H. Dong. Monitoring internal displacements of a model dam using FBG sensing bars. Adv. Struct. Eng., 13 (2010), pp. 249–261.

[6] H.H. Zhu, J.H. Yin, A.T. Yeung, W. Jin. Field pullout testing and performance evaluation of GFRP soil nails. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 137 (2011), pp. 633–641.

[7] K. Kesavan, K. Ravisankar, S. Parivallal, P. Sreeshylam, S. Sridhar. Experimental studies on fiber optic sensors embedded in concrete. Measurement, 43 (2010), pp. 157–163.

[8] A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, J. Nasser, M. Giordano, A. Calabrò. Dynamic strain measurements by fibre Bragg grating sensor. Sensor Actuat. A, 110 (2004), pp. 276–281.

[9] M.H. Yau, T.H.T. Chan, D.P. Thambiratnam, H.Y. Tam, Using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for vertical displacement measurement of bridges, in: 14th Asia Pacific Vibration Conference, Hong Kong, 2011, pp. 288–297.

[10] C.C. Ma, K.C. Chuang. Investigation of the transient behavior of a cantilever using a point-wise fiber Bragg grating displacement sensor system. Smart Mater. Struct., 17 (2008), p. 065010.

[11] K.C. Chuang, H.T. Liao, C.C. Ma. Dynamic sensing performance of a point-wise fiber Bragg grating displacement measurement system integrated in an active structural control system. Sensors, 11 (2011), pp. 11605–11628

[12] S. Vurpillot, D. Inaudi, A. Scano, Mathematical model for the determination of the vertical displacement from internal horizontal measurements of a bridge, in: SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, San Diego, USA, 1996, pp. 1–8.

[13] K.O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D.C. Johnson, B.S. Kawasaki. Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication. Appl. Phys. Lett., 32 (1978), pp. 647–649.

[14] K.O. Hill, G. Meltz. Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview. J. Lightwave Technol., 8 (1997), pp. 1263–1276.

[15] T.S. Ueng, M.H. Wang, M.H. Chen, C.H. Chen, L.H. Peng. A large biaxial shear box for shaking table test on saturated sand. Geotech. Test. J., 29 (2006), pp. 1–8